[27] In 1082, his vizier, Abu Nasr Ahmad ibn Fadl, had the central dome restored in a more spectacular form;[28] the two piers supporting it were reinforced and the original Umayyad mosaics of the northern inner façade were renewed. In the year 700 he sent an expedition to East Africa to add Mogadishu (located in present-day Somalia) to the caliphate. This tradition allowed the Abbasids to rally the supporters of the failed revolt of Mukhtar, who had represented themselves as the supporters of Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyya. They are parallel to the direction of prayer which is towards Mecca in modern-day Saudi Arabia. Syria - Syria - The Umayyads: The early Umayyad period was one of strength and expansion. Rahman 1999 Page 40, A Chronology Of Islamic History 570–1000 CE, By H.U. find this to be questionable because of the absence of corner towers in other former Roman temples. He soon established control of Khurasan, expelling its Umayyad governor, Nasr ibn Sayyar, and dispatched an army westwards. The first level consists of large semi-circular arches, while the second level is made up of double arches. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān III, first caliph and greatest ruler of the Umayyad Arab Muslim dynasty of Spain. It was the first time a pope paid a visit to a mosque. [33] It was constructed outside the eastern entrance to the mosque (Bab Jayrun) by architect Muhammad al-Sa'āti, was rebuilt by al-Sa'ati following a fire in 1167 and was eventually repaired by his son, Ridwan, in the early 13th century. The seven heads of the dragon are symbolic of the seven provinces of the lands dominated by the Umayyads: Damascus, Persia, Arabia, Egypt, Africa, Andalusia, and Transoxiana. [22][72] While it is possible that the Umayyads built it, there is no indication that a minaret on the northern wall was a part of Caliph al-Walid's initial concept. The region of Syria remained the Umayyads' main power base thereafter, and Damascus was their capital. In the Caucasus, the confrontation with the Khazars peaked under Hisham: the Arabs established Derbent as a major military base and launched several invasions of the northern Caucasus, but failed to subdue the nomadic Khazars. The governor was in charge of the religious officials, army leaders, police, and civil administrators in his province. Muawiyah married Maysum, the daughter of the chief of the Kalb tribe, a large Jacobite Christian Arab tribe in Syria. A regular Board of Correspondence was established under the Umayyads. In order to reduce forgery, Diwan al-Khatam (Bureau of Registry), a kind of state chancellery, was instituted by Mu'awiyah. In this respect it is notable that the Umayyad caliphs referred to themselves not as khalifat rasul Allah ("successor of the messenger of God", the title preferred by the tradition), but rather as khalifat Allah ("deputy of God"). [67], Three arcades make up the interior space of the sanctuary. The problem of the rights of non-Arab Muslims would continue to plague the Umayyads. For the restored Umayyad caliphate in the Iberian Peninsula, see, "Umayyad" redirects here. [75] His death marked the end of the Umayyads' Sufyanid ruling house, called after Mu'awiya I's father Abu Sufyan. [27] When Umar's overall commander of the province Abu Ubayda ibn al-Jarrah died in 639, he appointed Yazid governor of Syria's Damascus, Palestine and Jordan districts. [22] The bottom part of the minaret most likely dates back to the Abbasid era in the 9th century. Mosques, such as the Great Mosque, were the focus of many caliphs' attention. Al-Walid was also active as a builder, sponsoring the construction of Al-Masjid al-Nabawi in Medina and the Great Mosque of Damascus. Thus, the caliph served as the symbol of the supremacy of the Sharia, as commander of the faithful (amir al-muʾminin) in his capacity to both defend and expand these lands and as leader of prayers (Imam), thereby clothing the caliphate with religious meaning. Yazid is best known for his "iconoclastic edict", which ordered the destruction of Christian images within the territory of the Caliphate. At the time the center of power and the main gold coin mint was located in Dimishq (current day Damascus in Syria). Muawiyah ibn Abu Sufyan was the first Umayyad caliph, ruling from 661 to 680. It may have survived into the 14th century. Yazid III was the twelfth Umayyad caliph. Harun al-Rashid - Abbasid caliph during whose reign Baghdad became the world's preeminent centre of trade, learning, and culture. After Mu'awiyah's death in 680, conflicts over the succession resulted in a Second Civil War[5] and power eventually fell into the hands of Marwan I from another branch of the clan. From the caliphate's north-western African bases, a series of raids on coastal areas of the Visigothic Kingdom paved the way to the permanent occupation of most of Iberia by the Umayyads (starting in 711), and on into south-eastern Gaul (last stronghold at Narbonne in 759). When Abbasids declared amnesty for members of the Umayyad family, eighty gathered to receive pardons, and all were massacred. Beginning around 719, Hashimiyya missions began to seek adherents in Khurasan. Al-Walid was succeeded by his brother, Sulayman (715–717), whose reign was dominated by a protracted siege of Constantinople. [45] At that point, Mu'awiya entered Kufa and received the allegiance of the Iraqis. Muawiyah ibn Abu Sufyan was the first Umayyad caliph, ruling from 661 to 680. In 77 AH (699 AD) Abd al-Malik Ibn Marwan the Umayyad caliph instituted a monetary system and began striking the first Islamic coins including the gold Dinar. [45] With his accession, the political capital and the caliphal treasury were transferred to Damascus, the seat of Mu'awiya's power. His marriage to Maysum was politically motivated. Some information used in the article is provided by the footnotes of this source. [27] The Seljuk atabeg of Damascus, Toghtekin (r. 1104–1128), repaired the northern wall in 1110 and two inscribed panels located above its doorways were dedicated to him. [73], The Minaret of the Bride is divided into two sections; the main tower and the spire which are separated by a lead roof. Within the Umayyad Mosque complex are three minarets. This situation may actually have made widespread conversion to Islam undesirable from the point of view of state revenue, and there are reports that provincial governors actively discouraged such conversions. 110–111, sfn error: no target: CITEREFGriffith2016 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFMorony1996 (, A Chronology Of Islamic History 570–1000 CE, By H.U. The Seljuk king Tutush (r. 1079–1095) initiated the repair of damage caused by the 1069 fire. Mamluk sultan al-Nasir Muhammad also undertook major restoration work for the mosque in 1328. [87] Although Ubayd Allah attempted to restore the Syrian army of the Sufyanid caliphs, persistent divisions along Qays–Yaman lines contributed to the army's massive rout and Ubayd Allah's death at the hands of the pro-Alid forces of Mukhtar al-Thaqafi of Kufa at the Battle of Khazir in August 686. Mu‘awiya, then governor of Syria under ‘Ali, seized power after ‘Ali’s death. [14][15][16], According to 10th-century Persian historian Ibn al-Faqih, somewhere between 600,000 and 1,000,000 dinars were spent on the project. However, many early history books, e.g., The Islamic Conquest of Syria Fatuhusham, by al-Imam al-Waqidi, state that, after their conversion to Islam, Muhammad appointed Muawiyah I's father Abu Sufyan ibn Harb and his brother Yazid ibn Abi Sufyan as army commanders. Al-Walid is reported to have been more interested in earthly pleasures than in religion, a reputation that may be confirmed by the decoration of the so-called "desert palaces" (including Qusayr Amra and Khirbat al-Mafjar) that have been attributed to him. He also introduced a uniquely Muslim coinage, marked by its aniconic decoration, which supplanted the Byzantine and Sasanian coins that had previously been in use. [38], The Mongols, under the leadership of Kitbuqa, in alliance with Crusader forces, captured Damascus from the Ayyubids in 1260. It was only during the reign of Abd al-Malik that government work began to be regularly recorded in Arabic. The postal carriages were also used for the swift transport of troops. Rahman 1999 Page 72, Encyclopedia of Islam Volume VII, page 265, By Bosworth, sfn error: no target: CITEREFHolland2013 (, A Chronology Of Islamic History 570-1000 CE, By H.U. These issues continued to worsen until they helped cause the Abbasid Revolt in the 740s.[116]. [71] With a height of 36 meters (118 ft), the dome rests on an octagonal substructure with two arched windows on each of its sides. Al-Tabri was a huge collection, preserving everything the compiler could find for future generations to codify and to judge whether the histories were true or false. Tom Holland writes [129] Christians, Jews, Samaritans and Manichaeans were all treated well by Muawiyah. Prior to the advent of Islam, the Umayyads were a largely merchant family of the Quraysh tribe centered at Mecca. Umar is honoured for his attempt to resolve the fiscal problems attendant upon conversion to Islam. This marked the beginning of the Umayyad dynasty, ... Abu Bakr's successor, Caliph Umar (r. 634–644), though he actively curtailed the influence of the Qurayshi elite in favor of Muhammad's earlier supporters in the administration and military, did not disturb the growing foothold of Abu Sufyan's sons in Syria, which was all but conquered by 638. The dinar weighed 4.25 grams, or one mithqal, of the highest purity gold possible. The tomb of Umayyad Caliph Umar Ibn Abdul Aziz was burnt and destroyed by militias in Syria, 28 May 2020 [Sana/Twitter] May 28, 2020 at 12:41 pm . [8][9] Prominent positions were held by Christians, some of whom belonged to families that had served in Byzantine governments. The family established dynastic, hereditary rule with Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan , long-time governor of al-Sham (Greater Syria), who became the sixth caliph … Three windows are placed up high at the end of each aisle, and two windows in the eastern wall. [77] Not long afterward, the South Arabians of Homs and the Judham joined the Quda'a to form the tribal confederation of Yaman. [84], In 685, Marwan and Ibn Bahdal expelled the Zubayrid governor of Egypt and replaced him with Marwan's son Abd al-Aziz, who would rule the province until his death in 704/05. It used to make and preserve a copy of each official document before sealing and despatching the original to its destination. In the very center of old Damascus rises one of the greatest shrines of the Muslim world - Umayyah, or the Umayyad Mosque, the Great Mosque, built at the beginning of the VIII century. [57] The fire also destroyed the inner fabric of the prayer hall and caused the collapse of the mosque's central dome. During its transformation into a Christian cathedral, it was not immediately dedicated to John the Baptist; this was a later association, which came about in the sixth century. Soldiers of the Caliph were settled in camp cities at the edge of the desert, like Kufa and Basra, so that they could remain within reach of Caliph’s Command as well as their natural habitat. [30], Uthman's nepotism provoked the ire of the Ansar and the members of the shura. It was conquered by the Mongol leader Hülegü in 1258, after which its importance waned. Modern Arab nationalism regards the period of the Umayyads as part of the Arab Golden Age which it sought to emulate and restore. The main body of the current minaret was built by the Ayyubids in 1247, but the upper section was constructed by the Ottomans. This is particularly true of Syrian nationalists and the present-day state of Syria, centered like that of the Umayyads on Damascus. Definitively the finest of the Umayyad caliphs' desert dwellings, attracting a steady stream of intrepid Jordanian and foreign visitors who've already seen the set-pieces of Petra, the Dead Sea and Wadi Rum, it was also obvious that Amra was an example of one built mainly for pleasure. Marwan immediately moved the capital north to Harran, in present-day Turkey. He ordered the burning of the city on March 17, 1401, and the fire ravaged the Umayyad Mosque. Abd al-Malik is credited with centralizing the administration of the Caliphate and with establishing Arabic as its official language. Dinar coin issued by the Umayyad Caliph Hisham (723-743 AD). In 744, Yazid III, a son of al-Walid I, was proclaimed caliph in Damascus, and his army tracked down and killed al-Walid II. Intent on regaining power, he defeated the area's existing Islamic rulers and united various local fiefdoms into an emirate. [80] Marwan ibn al-Hakam, the leader of the Umayyads expelled to Syria from Medina, was prepared to submit to Ibn al-Zubayr as well, but was instead persuaded to forward his candidacy for the caliphate by Ubayd Allah, who had fled to Syria after being driven out of Iraq and strove to uphold Umayyad rule. [77] Ibn Kathir, a prominent 14th-century Muslim scholar, backed this notion. The construction of the mosque completely altered the layout of the building. As the central power of the Umayyad rulers waned in the later years of the dynasty, some governors neglected to send the extra tax revenue to Damascus and created great personal fortunes. [30] He was elected by the shura council, composed of Muhammad's cousin Ali, al-Zubayr ibn al-Awwam, Talha ibn Ubayd Allah, Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas and Abd al-Rahman ibn Awf, all of whom were close, early companions of Muhammad and belonged to the Quraysh. The Umayyad caliphate was marked both by territorial expansion and by the administrative and cultural problems that such expansion created. Circle “O” any word/key terms you don’t understand. The first four caliphs created a stable administration for the empire, following the practices and administrative institutions of the Byzantine Empire which had ruled the same region previously. The Caliph Yazid (son of Muawiya I) had Hussein (the son of Ali, the famous fourth caliph) killed when Hussein refused to take an oath of loyalty to the Umayyads. [21], By the early 10th century, a monumental clock[dubious – discuss] had been installed by the entrance in the western part of the southern wall of the mosque (Bāb al-Ziyāda.) According to local Damascene tradition, relating from Hadith of Muhammad about the Qiyamah,[79] he will reach earth via the Minaret of Jesus, hence its name. [45] Ali was assassinated by a Kharijite in January 661. [109] These consisted of four main governmental branches: political affairs, military affairs, tax collection, and religious administration. [68] Yazid acceded after Mu'awiya's death in 680 and almost immediately faced a challenge to his rule by the Kufan partisans of Ali who had invited Ali's son and Muhammad's grandson Husayn to stage a revolt against Umayyad rule from Iraq. Bohemond VI of Antioch, a leading general in the invasion, ordered Catholic Mass to be performed in the Umayyad Mosque. [81] The Western Minaret displays strong Islamic-era Egyptian architectural influence typical of the Mamluk period. [128] After the plague that killed much of the Muslim army in Syria, by marrying Maysun, Muawiyah used the Syriac Orthodox Christians against the Byzantines. [72][74] Mu'awiya II had been ill from the beginning of his accession, with al-Dahhak assuming the practical duties of his office, and he died in early 684 without naming a successor. In 747, he successfully initiated an open revolt against Umayyad rule, which was carried out under the sign of the black flag. 163, Recorded by Ibn Abu Shayba in Al-Musanaf and Abu 'Ubaid Ibn Sallam in his book Al-Amwal, pp.123, Fred M Donner, Muhammad and the Believers: At the Origins of Islam,(May 2010), pp. In his lifetime, the Prophet Muhammad tried to rally to Islam the main Arab tribes of North-Eastern Arabia and the Near East, but had little success. [74] Ibn Bahdal favored Mu'awiya II's brothers Khalid and Abd Allah for the succession, but they were viewed as too young and inexperienced by most of the pro-Umayyad tribal nobility in Syria. Mu'awiya is a member of one of the most prominent families of Mecca, the Umayya. Yazid III was the twelfth Umayyad caliph. It issued state missives and circulars to the Central and Provincial Officers. In 751, Arab forces went so far as to defeat a Chinese army in Central Asia outside of the caravan city of Samarkand (they fought an army of the Tang dynasty, which had been expanding along the Silk Road). [citation needed] The Umayyad dynastic color was white, after the banner of Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan;[151] it is now one of the four Pan-Arab colours which appear in various combinations on the flags of most Arab countries. Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan ibn al-Hakam (Arabic: عبد الملك ابن مروان ابن الحكم ‎, romanized: ʿAbd al-Malik ibn Marwān ibn al-Ḥakam; July/August 644 or June/July 647 – 9 October 705) was the fifth Umayyad caliph, ruling from April 685 until his death.A member of the first generation of born Muslims, his early life in Medina was occupied with pious pursuits. In 1173, the northern wall of the mosque was damaged again by fire and was rebuilt by the Ayyubid sultan, Saladin (r. 1174–1193), along with the Minaret of the Bride,[35] which had been destroyed in the 1069 fire. If they converted to Islam they would cease paying jizya and would instead pay zakat. Dinar coin issued by the Umayyad Caliph Hisham (723-743 AD). In 661, the Islamic Caliphate came under the rule of the Umayyad dynasty, which chose Damascus to be the administrative capital of the Muslim world. [22] This minaret is used by the muezzin for the call to prayer (adhan) and there is a spiral staircase of 160 stone steps that lead to the muezzin's calling position. He reigned for six months, from April 15 to October 3 or 4, 744, and died in that office. According to the Muslim historians al-Baladhuri and al-Tabari, Sanjur was a mawla of the first Umayyad caliph, Mu'awiya I (r. 661–680),[a] serving as his "secretary and the person in charge of his business". It is the burial place of first three martyrs of the Ottoman Aviation Squadrons, who were Navy Lieutenant (Ottoman Turkish: Bahriye Yüzbaşısı) Fethi Bey and his navigator, Artillery First Lieutenant (Ottoman Turkish: Topçu Mülazım-ı Ula) Sadık Bey and The second team's member Artillery Second Lieutenant (Ottoman Turkish: Topçu Mülazım-ı Saniye) Nuri Bey. After a number of victories, Mu‘awiya emerged as the sole ruler of the Muslim world. The Umayyads have met with a largely negative reception from later Islamic historians, who have accused them of promoting a kingship (mulk, a term with connotations of tyranny) instead of a true caliphate (khilafa). [32] From early in his reign, Uthman displayed explicit favouritism to his kinsmen, in stark contrast to his predecessors. This article is about the Umayyad Caliphate of Damascus. Struck at the Damascus mint (probable) in the year 110 AH (728-729 AD). The site is attested for as a place of worship since the Iron Age. There are two reasons for this difficulty. The coinage reform which led to the issue of this coin began in 77 AH (696-697 AD) under the Umayyad Caliph 'Abd al-Malik. The third caliph of Rashidun Caliphate, Uthman ibn Affan (r. 644–656), was also a member of the Umayyad clan. Some names were re-used, as in the case of Yazid II and Yazid III, which were not accounted for in this interpretation. An Umayyad, 25 kilometres south of the Capital d complex (settlement) at the modern village of Qastal (Amman) and 100 metres west of the airport Highway .It is one of the oldest and most complete Umayyad provincial communities in the Near East. The dynasty was eventually overthrown by a rebellion led by the Abbasids in 750. Write short notes on the main characters and activities of the main Umayyad rulers The Umayyad Dynasties lasted from the year 661 – 750 CE. 100% (1/1) Rashidun Rashidun caliph Rashidun Caliphs. Islamic rule expanded westward across North Africa and into Hispania and eastward through Persia and ultimately to Sindh and Punjab in modern … [59] They remained divided, nonetheless, as both cities competed for power and influence in Iraq and its eastern dependencies and remained divided between the Arab tribal nobility and the early Muslim converts, the latter of whom were divided between the pro-Alids (loyalists of Ali) and the Kharijites, who followed their own strict interpretation of Islam. It removed all symbolism associated with Byzantine or Sassanian rule. Later, when Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz came to power, he reduced these taxes. It also imposed and collected taxes and disbursed revenue. [41], Although Ali was able to replace Uthman's governors in Egypt and Iraq with relative ease, Mu'awiya had developed a solid power-base and an effective military against the Byzantines from the Arab tribes of Syria. Both the central and local governments were compensated for the services each provided. [45][47] In July 660 Mu'awiya was formally recognized as caliph in Jerusalem by his Syrian tribal allies. The Kalb tribe had remained largely neutral when the Muslims first went into Syria. The conflict was arduous and bloody, and the Arab army even suffered a major defeat at the Battle of Marj Ardabil in 730. As G.R. [130] Savagely though Muawiyah prosecuted his wars against the Romans, yet his subjects, no longer trampled by rival armies, no longer divided by hostile watchtowers, knew only peace at last. [53] Mu'awiya preoccupied his core Syrian troops in nearly annual or bi-annual land and sea raids against Byzantium, which provided them with battlefield experience and war spoils, but secured no permanent territorial gains. [163] This anti-Arab feeling also influenced the books on Islamic history. The new converts, on the basis of equality of all Muslims, transformed the political landscape. 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